Recent Advancements in Cancer Diagnostics

by | Feb 5, 2018 | Cancer

Global Cancer Diagnostics Market

The global cancer diagnostics market was estimated to be USD 16.55 billion in year 2016. It is expected to reach USD 232.7 billion by 2025 as per a new report released by Grand View Research, Inc. This boost in the cancer diagnostics market is majorly attributed to the advances in diagnostic technology. Although the newly developed diagnostic modalities remain costly, but they provide an incremental benefit.

Recently Developed Cancer Diagnostic Methods

  1. Magnetite Nanoparticles (MNPs)

Iron oxide, owing to their higher biocompatibility and least toxicity, is the only metal oxide nanoparticle that is approved for clinical use. These nanoparticles are used for diagnostic imaging to enhance image contrast as they accumulate selectively at tumour sites and thereby, provide precise details about tumour. Besides diagnostics, MNPs, when loaded with therapeutic agents such as daunorubicin, are used for the treatment of various cancers such as blood cancer, prostate cancer, etc. Their properties have also been harnessed to induce localized magnetic hyperthermia for cancer treatment.

With the recognition of MNP’s potential for theranostics (diagnostics + therapeutics), further researches are ongoing to develop new techniques for localization of non-palpable breast lesions and its applications in therapy for breast cancer and other tumours.

  1. Biosensors

Biosensor is a diagnostic device used to detect a biological analyte, i.e. tumour biomarkers (certain molecules/ proteins expressed and/or secreted by tumour cells). Biosensor rapidly analyses and measures the cancer biomarkers present and thereby helps in detection of cancer and its nature benign/malignant). In addition to diagnosis, biosensors also help in monitoring the efficacy of anticancer agents. They provide instant information to the treating physician at office (point of care) which greatly influence treatment planning and patient management. Their use is extended to diagnose wide range of cancers including lung cancer, oral cancer, breast cancer and many more.

A biosensor device is formed by three components, namely recognition component (detects signal), signal transducer (responsible for conversion of biological signal to electrical output), and processor (displays result). These are simple tool having huge potential for sensitive and specific detection of cancer biomarkers. Most of the currently available biosensors utilize single biomarker for detection of cancers. However, cancers usually express multiple biomarkers. Therefore, there is a need to develop biosensors with improved diagnostic accuracy and repeatability that can perform multiple analysis.

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

The advent of NGS technology have revolutionized the cancer diagnostics. In contrast to traditional DNA sequencing methods, simultaneous sequencing of numerous DNA fragments can be performed using NGS technique even without any prior knowledge about DNA sequences. This technique allows sequencing of complete genome within few days at a cost less than $1000/genome.

Presently, NGS technique is available in two types, namely short read sequencing and long read sequencing. The short-read technique is relatively cheaper and can read sequences that are less than 300 base pairs. The contrast long-read technique is costly and allows reading of sequences larger than 2.5 Kilo bases.

Cancer diagnostics is an evolving field and numerous researches are always underway to develop more advanced modalities. Turacoz Healthcare Solutions aims to keep everyone updated on the newer technologies and help spread awareness on the current and upcoming trends.