Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an endocrine metabolic disorder, characterized by elevated blood glucose level. DM is sub-classified into following categories.
- Type 1 Diabetes mellitus, also called as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
- Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, also called as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 DM
In Type 1 DM, there is no secretion of insulin by Beta cells of Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas because of the auto-immune destruction. Hence, there is no proper secretion of insulin. Type 1 DM is mainly treated by insulin replacement therapy. Symptoms of Type 1 DM include excessive thirst and hunger, blurred vision and fatigue. Frequent urination and weight loss occur in short period of time.
Diabetic complications may lead to cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, and skin problems like foot ulcer.
Diagnosis of Type 1 DM is usually conducted by following procedure:
- Fasting blood sugar >126 mg/dl on two separate tests.
- Random blood sugar >200 mg/dl.
- Haemoglobin, HbA1c> 6.5 on two separate tests.
Management of Type 1 DM:
Good glycaemic control in Type 1 DM requires insulin therapy and oral hypoglycaemic agents like metformin, pioglitazone.
Diet and exercise play a crucial role in the management of DM.
Type 2 DM
In Type 2 DM, body cells not able to respond to insulin which is produce by Beta cells of the pancreas and is not able to produce insulin anymore.
Gestational Diabetes is a condition in which sugar level is elevated during pregnancy.